The Tree is now free from the surrounding soil, and the root ball must be shaped and wrapped. This process is known as balling and burl aping. This will prevent the root ball from breaking and also protect the roots from water loss and stress. As a general rule, trees with shallow roots require a “flatter” ball and those with deeply penetrating roots require a deeper ball with a smaller circumference. The preferred diameter of a root ball is about four times the diameter of the trunk. The generally recommended depth of a root ball is 1.0m. The root ball is shaped by carving the lower portion to provide a rounded base. The ensure that the root ball is not disturbed during transportation, it is tightly wrapped with gunny sack or burlap to keep it intact and securely tied with poultry wire or twine. The root ball should be kept moist all the time to reduce water stress. Small hardy trees can be transplanted without a proper root ball. This is known as bare root planting whereby the trees is first dug out to expose the roots and then covered with wet burlap to minimise water loss.